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2019年英語專業八級真題聽力 Mini-lecture(1)

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Body Language and Mind

肢體語言和意識
Good morning, everyone.
大家早上好。
In today's lecture, I'd like to focus on how our body language reveals who we are.
在今天的課上,我主要來講講我們的肢體語言如何揭示出我們是什么樣的人。
We're really fascinated with body language, and particularly interested in other people's body language.
我們對肢體語言十分感興趣,尤其是其他人的肢體語言。
You know, we're sometimes interested in an awkward interaction, or a smile, or a contemptuous glance, or maybe a very awkward wink, or handshake.
你們知道的,我們有時會對一次尷尬的交流、微笑、輕蔑一瞥感興趣,也有可能對尷尬的眨眼或握手感興趣。
So what kind of body language am I talking about?
那么,你們知道我說的是哪種肢體語言嗎?
I am interested in power dynamics -- that is the nonverbal expressions of power and dominance.
我對動力學感興趣——這是權力和支配地位的非語言表達。
And what are nonverbal expressions of power and dominance?
那么,權力和支配地位的非語言表達是什么呢?
Well, this is what they are.
下面,我來闡述它們的含義。
In the animal kingdom, nonverbal expressions of power and dominance are about expanding.
在動物王國,權力和支配地位的非語言表達是關于擴張的。
So you make yourself big, you stretch out, you take up space and you're basically opening up.
你讓自己變大,你伸展四肢,你占據了空間,基本上你就打開了。
And... and humans do the same thing.
而人類也在做同樣的事情。
So they do this when they're feeling powerful in the moment.
因此,當他們感覺強有力時,就會做這個動作。
And this one is especially interesting because it really shows us how universal and old these expressions of power are.
這個動作尤為有趣,因為它的確向我們展示出,這些關于力量的表達是多么普遍而古老。
For example, when athletes cross the finish line and they've won, it doesn't matter if they've never seen anyone do it. They do this.
例如,當運動員跨過終點線,贏得比賽時,他們是否看過其他人做這個動作并不重要,而他們會做這個動作。
So the arms are up in the V sign, the chin is slightly lifted.
他們舉起雙臂比成V的手勢,下巴微微抬起。
But what do we do when we feel powerless?
但我們無力時會最什么呢?
We do exactly the opposite. We close up. We make ourselves small.
我們會做正好相反的動作。我們合上了。我們讓自己變小。
We don't want to bump into the person next to us.
我們不想碰到旁邊的人。
And this is what happens when you put together high and low power.
這就是你力量強大和微弱時會發生的事情。
So what we tend to do when it comes to power is that we complement the other's nonverbals.
那么,我們在強大時傾向于補充其他人的非語言行為。
What I mean is if someone is being really powerful with us, we tend to make ourselves smaller.
我的意思是,如果某人和我們在一起時十分強大而有力,我們傾向于讓自己變小。
We don't mirror them. We do the opposite.
我們不模仿他們。我們做的動作恰恰相反。
I'm watching this behavior in the classroom, and guess what I have noticed.
我在教室里觀察這個動作,猜猜我注意到了什么。
I notice that MBA students really exhibit the full range of power nonverbals.
我注意到工商管理碩士學生們真的會全方位展示出力量肢體語言。
They get right into the middle of the room before class even starts, like they really want to occupy space.
他們甚至在上課前就徑直走到教室中央,好像真的想占據空間一樣。
When they sit down, they're sort of spread out. They raise their hands high.
當他們坐下時,他們伸展開來。他們高舉雙手。
You have other people who are virtually collapsing when they come in.
你可以看到其他人進來時真的會崩潰。
As soon as they, I mean other people, come in, you see it.
他們,我是指其他人,進來時,你就會看到。
You see it on their faces and their bodies, and they sit with their chairs and they make themselves tiny,
你會看到他們的臉上和身體都會出現崩潰的跡象,他們坐在椅子上,讓自己變小,
and they will not fully stretch their arms when they raise their hands.
他們舉手時也不會完全伸展開雙臂。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
awkward ['ɔ:kwəd]

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adj. 笨拙的,尷尬的,(設計)別扭的

 
glance [glɑ:ns]

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v. 一瞥,掃視,匆匆一看,反光,閃爍,掠過

 
tend [tend]

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v. 趨向,易于,照料,護理

 
nonverbal [.nɔn'və:bl]

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adj. 非言辭語的,不用語言的

 
universal [.ju:ni'və:səl]

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adj. 普遍的,通用的,宇宙的,全體的,全世界的

 
slightly ['slaitli]

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adv. 些微地,苗條地

 
wink [wiŋk]

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n. 眨眼,使眼色,瞬間
v. 眨眼,使眼色,

 
interaction [.intə'rækʃən]

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n. 相互作用,相互影響,互動交流

聯想記憶
occupy ['ɔkjupai]

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vt. 占領,占用,占據,使忙碌,使從事

聯想記憶
range [reindʒ]

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n. 范圍,行列,射程,山脈,一系列
v. 排

 
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