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新疆的職業技能教育培訓工作(7)(中英對照)

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VI. Experience in Countering Extremism

六、探索出去極端化的有益經驗
Over the years, in response to the threats posed by terrorism and extremism, and in order to prevent them from breeding and expanding, and to guarantee individual safety and social stability, many countries have explored measures based on their own conditions, and gained experience in effectively combating terrorism and extremism.
多年來,為應對恐怖主義、極端主義的威脅,消除恐怖主義、極端主義滋生蔓延的土壤和條件,維護人民生命安全和社會穩定,世界上一些國家堅持從本國實際出發,積極探索反恐、去極端化有效辦法,并積累了有益經驗。
Some countries have established "deradicalization centers" to educate victims of extremist teachings and reverse their thinking. These centers rehabilitate the trainees through individual or collective sports activities and psychological counseling, and discussions on religion and secularity, and enable them to re-assimilate into society through skills and vocational training.
有的國家設立"去極端化中心",對受過極端主義感染的群體進行一段時間的教育轉化,通過個體或集體體育活動、心理輔導,穿插對宗教現實和世俗主義的討論等,使學員獲得心理恢復,并通過技能和職業培訓使學員重新融入社會。
Some countries have set up education and transformation centers. They divide extremists into three categories: those who recognize their error, latent criminals, and active criminals, and try to remove them from extremist influences with the assistance of their families and communities, together with measures like psychological intervention and economic aid.
有的國家設立"教育轉化中心",把極端分子分為自首者、潛在者、犯罪者三類,依托家庭、社區,并配合精神干預治療、經濟幫扶等措施,進行去極端化改造。
Some countries educate and transform terrorists and potential terrorists in both prisons and communities, and deradicalize those involved in terrorist-related offences through the process of identification, assessment, rehabilitation, reeducation, return to society and follow-up.
有的國家在監獄和社區兩個層面對恐怖分子及高危群體進行教育轉化,通過甄別、康復、再教育、回歸社會、評估等辦法,對涉恐罪犯進行去極端化改造。
Some countries denounce the erroneous interpretation of Islamic doctrine by extremists, encourage religious inclusiveness, advocate "moderate Islam", and set up education centers to transform those influenced by extremist thinking in two phases – centralized control and return to society.
有的國家譴責極端分子對伊斯蘭教義的錯誤解釋,鼓勵宗教包容,提出回歸"溫和伊斯蘭",并設立教化中心,通過集中管控和回歸社會兩個階段對受極端主義影響的人員進行教育轉化。
Some countries have launched transformation and disengagement programs, compelling individuals with terrorist connections and suspected terrorist returnees to participate in training, and setting up isolation centers for extremists to prevent them from spreading extreme views to other detainees.
有的國家通過啟動"轉化和脫離"項目,強制要求曾涉恐人員和返國恐怖嫌犯必須參加培訓,并在全國設立隔離中心,用于拘押極端分子,以防止其在監獄感染其他在押人員。
Some countries have taken measures in communities to intervene in the spread of extremism at its earliest stages, and mobilized society to prevent terrorist and extremist activities by taking timely action against any inclination on the part of young people to join extremist organizations.
有的國家在社區采取相關措施,對受極端主義影響的人員進行早期干預,并采取社會動員的方式及早發現并制止年輕人加入極端組織的企圖,防止發生恐怖主義和極端主義行為。
Xinjiang's practice of educating and rehabilitating the victims of terrorist and religious extremist teachings through vocational education and training centers is similar to efforts by other countries and regions, with the same goals of dealing with the problem at source and protecting people's basic human rights.
新疆通過設立教培中心,開展教培工作,對受恐怖主義、宗教極端主義影響的人進行教育挽救,與世界上一些國家和地區的做法是相通的,目的都是為了防微杜漸、治病救人,最大限度保障公民的基本人權免受恐怖主義、極端主義侵害。
Xinjiang's vocational education and training programs have achieved notable results, and contributed experience to international actions against terrorism and extremism.
新疆開展教培工作,取得了顯著成效,為國際社會開展反恐、去極端化探索出了有益經驗。
– Fighting extremism in accordance with local conditions. In its vocational education and training, Xinjiang has learned from experience of other countries, and striven to achieve real results in line with the actual conditions of the autonomous region. In countering terrorism and extremism, Xinjiang draws on the experience of other countries, and provides people influenced by terrorist and religious extremist teachings with education in standard spoken and written Chinese, an understanding of the law, and training in vocational skills. These efforts have eradicated extremist thoughts, delivered widely recognized results, helped to safeguard social stability in the region, and protected the environment for the healthy development of religions.
——堅持因地制宜去極端化。新疆開展教培工作,既積極借鑒國際社會反恐、去極端化經驗,又堅持從區情和面臨的具體反恐、去極端化形勢出發,有針對性地開展工作,力求取得實際效果。新疆緊密結合反恐、去極端化斗爭實際,充分借鑒國際社會反恐和去極端化經驗,對受恐怖主義、宗教極端主義影響的人有針對性地開展國家通用語言文字、法律知識、職業技能教育培訓,祛除極端化思想,取得了社會公認的實際效果,有力維護了新疆的社會穩定,也有效維護了宗教健康發展的環境。
– Putting prevention first while taking firm action on terrorism and extremism. In its fight against terrorism and extremism, Xinjiang has consistently adopted the policy of addressing both the symptoms and root causes. On the one hand, Xinjiang strikes hard at terrorist and extremist forces, and on the other hand, it gives prevention a high priority, sparing no effort to educate and rehabilitate the large number of people who have committed only minor offences under the influence of terrorism and religious extremism. Xinjiang adopts an approach of rehabilitation rather than punishment and compassion rather than rejection to free them of religious extremist thinking. It teaches them laws and standard spoken and written Chinese, so that they can become educated individuals with vocational skills – useful individuals and individuals of value to society.
——堅持打防結合、預防為主。堅持標本兼治方針,一手抓打擊,對恐怖主義、極端主義保持高壓態勢;一手抓預防,以教育挽救為主。通過開展教培工作,對多數受恐怖主義、宗教極端主義影響但罪行較輕的人,進行教育挽救保護,用拉的方式而不是推的方式,用挽救的方式而不是嚴懲的方式,用關愛的方式而不是嫌棄的方式,進行幫教,使其擺脫宗教極端主義的束縛,能夠知法守法,能夠掌握國家通用語言文字,并具備一定的知識文化和勞動技能,成為對社會有用的人,實現人生價值。
– Promoting the rule of law. It is an essential requirement of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics to build a socialist country governed by the rule of law. In the process of promoting vocational education and training and eliminating the environment for breeding terrorism and religious extremism, Xinjiang promotes the rule of law, upholds the authority of the Constitution and laws, adopts appropriate legal thinking and measures to deal with problems, and confines all its efforts within the legal framework. The deradicalization work of the vocational education and training centers is always based on facts and laws, without targeting any specific region, ethnic group or religion.
——堅持弘揚法治精神。依法治國、建設社會主義法治國家,是建設中國特色社會主義的本質要求。新疆開展教培工作,消除恐怖主義、宗教極端主義滋生土壤和環境,始終高舉法治旗幟,堅決維護憲法和法律權威,堅持運用法治思維和法治方式處理問題,使各項工作始終在法治軌道上進行。教培中心的去極端化工作,始終堅持以事實為根據,以法律為準繩,堅持不與特定地域、民族、宗教掛鉤。
– Respecting and protecting human rights. The vocational education and training efforts in Xinjiang protect people's basic human rights, and at the same time rehabilitate as far as possible those who have committed unlawful or criminal offences under the influence of religious extremist teachings. The centers place the trainees first, manage them in line with regulations like schools, provide people-centered services, strictly prohibit any form of humiliation or mistreatment, and guarantee their personal freedom. In the centers, the trainees receive high-quality education and training in diverse skills, and their right to education is fully safeguarded.
——堅持尊重和保障人權。開展教培工作,既保障了各族人民的基本人權免受侵害,又最大限度地挽救了受宗教極端主義影響的有違法犯罪行為人員。教培中心堅持以人為本,依法實行規范化、學校化管理,提供人性化服務,嚴禁以任何方式對學員進行人格侮辱和虐待,保障學員的人身自由。教培中心為學員提供優質的教學資源和多樣化的技能培訓,最大限度保障學員享有受教育權利。
– The government must take on the responsibility and achieve tangible results. It is the bounden duty of a responsible government to protect its people's lives, health, property, and other basic rights, and provide a safe, stable and harmonious living environment. Governments at all levels in Xinjiang, bearing their responsibility to the people in mind, are engaged in a host of patient, careful and extremely hard efforts to educate and rehabilitate victims of terrorist and religious extremist teachings. Success in vocational education and training promotes justice, safeguards people's dignity and presents a positive image of government.
——堅持政府擔當有為。保障人民生命權、健康權、財產權,使人民各項基本權利免受侵犯,在安定祥和的社會環境中生活,是一個負責任的政府義不容辭的責任。新疆各級政府,本著對人民高度負責的態度,對受恐怖主義、宗教極端主義影響的人,進行教育挽救,做了大量耐心細致的工作,付出了難以想象的艱辛。教培工作的成功開展,伸張了社會正義,維護了人的尊嚴,樹立了政府良好形象。

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dignity ['digniti]

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n. 尊嚴,高貴,端莊

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dealing ['di:liŋ]

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n. 經營方法,行為態度
(復數)dealin

 
specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明確的,具有特效的
n. 特

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engaged [in'geidʒd]

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harmonious [hɑ:'məuniəs]

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transformation [.trænsfə'meiʃən]

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humiliation [hju:.mili'eiʃən]

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